Issue 64 | Infrastructure under Blockchain: Field Investigation on Mining and Urban Upgrading

第64期专题 | 区块链下的基础设施:田野币矿与都市升维
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Issue 64 | Infrastructure under Blockchain: Field Investigation on Mining and Urban Upgrading

Time & Location

2020年3月15日 GMT-4 下午9:00 – 2020年3月16日 GMT-4 下午11:00
Zoom Conference

About the Event

2020春季 第64期

区块链下的基础设施:田野币矿与都市升维

2020 Spring Season Issue 65

INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER BLOCKCHAIN: FIELD INVESTIGATION ON MINING AND URBAN UPGRADING 

线上观影 |  Films Screening Online 

Dream Channel: Feature Film and Series Funded by its Own Cryptocurrency

Alchemical Infrastructure: Making Blockchain in Iceland

The poor, the banks & digital money - Founders Valley

The Park That Blockchain & Cryptocurrency Built: STEEM PARK 

Planetary Bitcoinization, Video by Yue Wu 

Chinese Coin (Red Blood), Video and Sound by Mike Huntemann 

Program Statement | 专题综述

The general understanding of cryptocurrency is literal and economic. As a hot issue, few people trace the spatial problems or geopolitical metaphors behind the cryptocurrency industry global economic networks. This issue “Bitcene” is a dialectical reflexive mirror on the global decentralized network.

Cryptocurrency and blockchain technology sheds light on the urban development strategies that rely on centralized resources without the limitation of nation, territory, city, network, and infrastructure. Quebec, Iceland, Ordos city and other geolocations across the traditional geopolitical boundaries already form new financial spaces, infrastructure networks, and the migration corridors of the mining farm at a planetary urbanization scale. This urbanization has a profound influence on the coordinated development of Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, as well as the exploration of block chain community and cyber financial system.

Meanwhile, the history of city ascending is indeed a Hegelian ascending spiral history accompanied by the repetance of decentralization and centralization. From cash to cryptocurrency, the new interaction of blockchain-based industrial cities represents the fuse of physical and digital, the step that the human takes towards the immortal, and the virtual space's accelerated dominance and replacement of the future citizens' everyday life with a strong tension of dystopian cyborg.

In this way, we need to critically reflect on the development of the blockchain and cryptocurrency. On the one hand, applying the idea of "space chain" inspired by the concept of blockchain allows citizens to experience the urban life, explain the urban mechanism and explore the urban challenges from another "city dimension". On the other hand, investigating the cryptocurrency's centralized externalities enables citizens to re-examine the history of city ascending.

专题简述 | Introduction

以马克思(K. Marx)的框架粗俗地描述现代社会的前瞻便是,大数据是新的生产资料,深度学习是新的生产力,区块链则是新的生产关系。从2008年的白皮书中构架而出的比特币,从起初的单枚零点零零几美元一路推至1万8美元高价,但有效的落地应用场景迟迟未现,历经19年断崖式下跌与各国政府的强力监管,价格腰折至高点一半。然而人们往往在短期内倾向高估技术的成就,却低估其在长期内的影响,掩于比特币浮华投资噱头之下的区块链的构想实则有着出于政治与资本的深刻意涵。

作为起源于80年代末密码朋克运动的延伸,区块链所意指的“去中心化”是一种内在于数字技术的意识形态。“哈希算法”单向密码体制确立的不可篡改,“分布式数据存储”保证的数据分散,旨在全球网络环境中建立排除中心的信息体系,工业革命以来极大程度解放的生产力,使得技术与权力进一步相附相拥。机关与民众的力量差持续悬殊,无关政治意识形态,技术或许终会成为结束一切体制演进的主因。而政治的本质即是“非共识”,是为了暴露“秩序”中的“错误”而提出的争议性的平等证明,而区块链正是抵拒机关以“秩序”为原则进行系统性对于“错误”的抹消,挑拨着体制积弊已久的僵硬与有恃无恐的骄纵。

另一方面区块链所内涵的数字技术与资本深刻纠葛,意寓了资本诸多新的现实,区块链以发行“数字代币”的“共识机制”是一种社会自组织协作模式的历史性演进。远远超越封建时代的暴力胁迫,与资本社会有限性合作的股份公司,为了调动对于区块链构建参与,而反馈的“数字代币”所构成的价值网络,是一种以经济激励调动社群形成的强关系协作。更进一步,这种“共识机制”的“共识”所展现的,是对与内在于“货币”虚拟性质的一种定义扩张,经济学里称为“通证”(Token),视作是一种可经加密的符号。以密码学为信用背书,数字平台中用户的所有行为时间资产数据都可以成为通证化的对象,有着远高于传统的股票期权债券期货合约等等金融衍生品的潜力。主播是颜值的通证化,抖音是场景通证化,共享是闲置资产通证化,而区块链则有在精巧的激励机制下通证化一切的能力。突破由金钱衡量的单一性,不同社群间的通证所构筑的是多元化衡量标准的高维社会。同时也意味着资本还有着可以无限吞噬的边界,持续量化的可能。

本期讨论问题|Discussion Questions

1.币矿以巨大尺度在田野中建构了虚拟网络的实体,化为自然地景。这是否展现了一个现实,即虚拟网络边界的拓张在以重构自然为代价。

2.以基础设施巨构形态呈现的币矿是否意味着区块链“去中心化”理念的失败?

3.以比特币众筹的都市公建项目(如公园,美术馆)是否可以理解为是在区块链“共识机制”下衍生的社群共识的实体。

4.区块链的“共识机制”的共识模式的改变是否有创造多种不同公众参与式建设的潜能。

嘉宾Guest Speaker

吴越

吴越毕业于麻省理工学院,获建筑与城市研究理学学位。其毕业设计着重研究比特币的基础设施及其城市影响。其曾就职于大都会建筑设计事务所,史基摩欧文美尔建筑咨询有限公司,隈研吾建筑设计有限公司等。其作品曾参展深港双年展,首尔双年展,上海城市空间艺术季等。

Yue Wu holds a Master’s degree in Architecture Design Studies, Urbanism from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His master thesis investigates Bitcoin’s infrastructure and its urban implication. He has practiced at OMA, SOM, KKAA, and other architecture design agencies. His digital artwork has been featured by Shenzhen/Hong Kong Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture, Seoul Biennale, Shanghai Urban Space Art Season, and other design events."

何竞飞

东京大学学士,耶鲁大学硕士,堺工作室创始人之一。曾任日本建筑学术刊物「建築雑誌」专栏作者,作品刊载于国内「建筑学报」,获日本全国毕业设计比赛「卒業設計日本一決定戦」第一名。共同策展于2019年上海城市空间艺术季与深圳建筑双年展。

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